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1- Ministry of Science, Research and Technology
2- Ministry of Health and Medical Education
Abstract:   (511 Views)
Background and Objectives: Although motor impairments are not the defining features of autism, they are abnormal in autistic individuals in many aspects. Motor delays, gross and fine motor control, postural control, imitation, and coordination are areas of motor abnormalities that may contribute to social impairments in autism. Due to the fact that social and cognitive functioning are related to physical activity behavior, physical interventions have been shown to be influential to improve social skills and soothe ASD symptoms. Further, active video games and exergaming are a novel field of research and studies show that they affect autistic individual's social and cognitive skills in a positive way. According to the findings, there was a gap to compare the effects of two kinds of traditional and active video game interventions on ASD symptoms. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effect of two kinds of Spark and active computer games (Kinect) on autistic symptoms in ASD children. Methods: Ethical approval was received from the university research ethics center and Iran Autism center. The participant’s parents were completely informed of the research process and gave their consent. A total of 60 children with ASD were selected in access form Iran Autism Centre. They were assigned randomly into the Kinect group (n=20), Spark group (n=20) and control group (n=20). But due to the transportation problems, we had to make some changes in each group. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, their parents completed the ATEC questionnaire by the researcher or research assistants guidance. There are acceptable content validity and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.86-0.93) for this questionnaire. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient for all the subscales and total scores was high as well (ICC: 0.79 - 0.93) using the test-retest reliability. Then the participants in two experimental groups went through three times weekly exercise for 8 weeks and the control group just received their routine(Mage= 8.16±1.49, MWeight= 33.02±10.42, MHeight= 133.47±11.64). We dropped out some participants in our experimental groups in the Kinect group (n=17) and in the Spark group (n=19) but not in the control group (n=20). After the intervention, parents answered the questionnaire at post-test. In the Kinect group, the children played tennis individually and in pairs and in Spark group they performed some selected exercises according to Spark collection. Results: One-Way ANOVA analysis showed no significant difference in first part(speech/language/communication) F(2,35)=2.379, p= 0.102, second part (sociability) F(2,53)= 2.15, p= 0.808 and forth part(health/physical/behavior) F(2,53)= 0665, p= 0.024. But a significant difference in third part F (2, 53) = 5.908, p= 0.005 of the questionnaire (Sensory/Cognitive Awareness) were found (p<0/05). A significant difference was found between Kinect and the other groups (Spark and control) in post-hoc analysis. Conclusion: Kinect exercise improved sensory/ Cognitive attention in Autistic children. Additional research is needed in terms of the intensity, the type of game and the long-term effects of this kind of computer game.
     
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Rehabilitation
Received: 2019/04/11 | Accepted: 2019/05/19

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