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Mehrabi Pari ُ, Talepasand S, Nazifi M, Rahimian Boogar I. Effective set shifting training on reducing symptoms of ADHD . MEJDS. 2017; 7 :96-96
URL: http://jdisabilstud.ir/article-1-835-en.html
1- Semnan University
2- Bojnord University
Abstract:   (1285 Views)
Background & Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most important and frequent behavioral-psychological disorders in children. A meta-analysis on 175 studies has reported that the prevalence rate of this disorder is 2.7%. The behavior of children with ADHD has a bad effect on their performance in their family, community, and school, and causes the negative reaction of relatives, family members, school staffs, and peers. Due to the same reason, treatment of this group of children is highly important. Recent studies indicate that through intervention and training in their cognitive ability of the task, shifting (set-shifting) the degree of the disorder can be affected, and ADHD symptoms can be reduced. Set-shifting is one of the brain’s executive functions indicating that in typical tasks, participants subjectively (mentally) maintain two response sets simultaneously and move between these response's sets according to a predetermined criterion (or in any other effort or activity), or monitor their performance and change their responses based on the feedback received from their performances. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the intervention in set-shifting in reducing ADHD symptoms.
Methods: The current research was performed by an experimental method with a control group. The statistical population of this research included all the elementary students with ADHD in the city of Semnan during the academic year 2016-2017. The sample of this study consisted of 24 students with ADHD who were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group. The students within each group were controlled to meet the following factors: they should have a normal intelligence. They should not take any medicines for reducing the symptoms. They should not participate in any other therapeutic intervention, and they should have the symptoms of both hyperactivity and attention deficit. Ten 45-minute training sessions were held for the experimental group. The research instruments included the revised version of Caner’s Parents Rating Scale for ADHD symptoms and Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrix Test to ensure the normal intelligence level of children.
Results: The findings showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control group in post-test results in all three components of attention deficit, hyperactivity, and its combined mode (p<0.001) so that the experimental group showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms after receiving the intervention and set-shifting training.
Conclusion: It can be argued that intervening in set-shifting can result in reduced ADHD symptoms, and the reason for this is that to perform the tasks and their behaviors (where children with ADHD show some impairment) it is necessary that children pay attention to the stimuli, and they must focus on them, while at the same time they must ignore the irreverent stimuli; the responsibility for this function is held by set-shifting. The set-shifting involves the strategic ability of focus and attention as well as getting attention away while resisting against interference and distraction, and these are among the main reasons for impairment in children with ADHD. Therefore, a training and intervention which reinforce the set-shifting can reduce the degree of disorder in children. Thus, a set-shifting training and an intervention based on set-shifting can be used to decrease the severity and symptoms of ADHD.

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Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2017/06/15 | Accepted: 2017/07/4

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