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Alizadeh H, Imani M, Kazemi F, Ghobari Bonab ‌. Direct Instruction: A Behavioral Intervention for Improvement of Working Memory and Automaticity in Students with Mathematics Learning Disability. mejds. 2017; 7 :2-2
URL: http://jdisabilstud.ir/article-1-760-en.html
1- Allameh Tabataba’i University
2- Tehran University
Abstract:   (4285 Views)

Background: Mathemetics word problem-solving ability has long been recognized as an essential component in math problem-solving skills. One of the main purposes of teaching mathematics is developing problem-solving skills in the students. Different Studies have shown that problem-solving skills are especially difficult for students with mathematics learning disorders. Direct Instruction (DI) is a method based on behavioral approach and a teacher-centered strategy designed in four stages, including expressing purpose of the instruction; make use of pre-organizers, concept maps and presenting frequent practices. In DI method, the teacher directly teaches educational objectives and course contents to students and actively strives to present the course content directly to all students. In this method, teacher is the most active member in classroom. He speaks walks, makes gestures, uses head and hands, asks, writes something on the board, draws charts and shapes and actively tries to transfer information to the learners. Studies have shown that working memory and automaticity components are effective on increasing mathematical problem solving skills. The aim of this study was to review the literature of DI as a behavioral method and to demonstrate how it affects cognitive components including working memory and automaticity and consequently reinforces mathematics problem solving in students with mathematics learning disability.
Materials & Methods: to conduct the research and by using key words such as: Direct Instruction, Mathematics learning disability, Working Memory, Automaticity and Repetitious Practices articles were obtained from data-based information websites including PubMed, Google scholar, Proquest, ScienceDirect, Eric and PsychInfo. The obtained data were analyzed in order to achieve the goal of research which was introduction of DI as a behavioral intervention to increase working memory and automaticity in students with mathematics learning disability. Then, some related books, along with thesis and doctoral dissertations in English were reviewed. Eventually, from the total amount of 45 articles, 25 articles including research papers, review articles and meta-analysis in the areas of mathematics learning disability, Direct Instruction method, mathematical problem solving and neurology of students with learning disorders between 1970 and 2015 were studied.
Results: Results of the study showed that due to the nature of its emphasis on repetitious practices, providing numerous examples, presenting organized information, giving feedback and. DI is one of best methods to teach students with learning disability which increases working memory and automaticity and consequently reinforce mathematic problem solving skills in this students.
Conclusion: Clinicians and teachers in the process of instructing and rehabilitation of students with special needs, require to know about the educational content, the starting point and speed training, and decide about how to evaluate the performance of learners. There are different methods and educational approaches to make the most appropriate decisions. The diversity of approaches and teaching methods to create he desired outcomes and to meet the students' needs with special needs in better ways, make cause researchers and clinicians to identify and find the most appropriate and effective teaching methods. In this article, the efficacy of behavioral approaches and exclusively Direct Instruction on increasing mathematical problem solving skills in students with learning disorders was examined. Literature review revealed that numerous findings supported using DI in classrooms and reported its effectiveness on working memory and automaticity in learners. DI has unique features such as continuous evaluation of performance, presenting contents in organized small steps and giving feedback, which increases cognitive abilities and is highly effective for students with mathematic learning disability. Accordingly, DI is effective on two components of working memory and automaticity and it can be used in related interventions.

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Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2017/03/11 | Accepted: 2017/05/1

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